Scientific News and Reading Suggestions #12

“Suicide hotspots” is a phrase that can have two meanings: a geographical area with a relatively high rate of suicide among its resident population and a specific, accessible and usually public site often used as a location for suicide, providing either means or opportunity for suicide.
The following articles focus on the key approaches suggested worldwide in order to prevent suicide attempts in hotspots.

  • Interventions to reduce suicides at suicide hotspots: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Pirkis J, Too LS, Spittal MJ, Krysinska K, Robinson J, Cheung YT.
    Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Nov;2(11):994-1001. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00266- 7.
    Epub 2015 Sep 22. Review. Erratum in: Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Nov;2(11):961. PMID: 26409438
  • Cooling suicide hotspots.
    Caine ED.
    Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Nov;2(11):952-3. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00315- 6. Epub 2015 Sep 22. No abstract available. PMID: 26409437
  • “Hotspots” and “copycats” a plea for more thoughtful language about suicide.
    Owens C.
    Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Jan;3(1):19-20. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00492- 7.
  • “Hotspots” and “copycats” a plea for more thoughtful language about suicide – Authors reply.
    Pirkis J, Krysinska K, Cheung YTD, Too LS, Spittal MJ, Robinson J.
    Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Jan;3(1):20. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00548- 9.
  • Comparing Different Suicide Prevention Measures at Bridges and Buildings: Lessons We Have Learned from a National Survey in Switzerland.
    Hemmer A, Meier P, Reisch T.
    PLoS One. 2017 Jan 6;12(1):e0169625. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169625. eCollection 2017.
  • Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions.
    Strauss MJ, Klimek P, Sonneck G, Niederkrotenthaler T.
    R Soc Open Sci. 2017 Mar 8;4(3):160711. doi: 10.1098/rsos.160711. eCollection 2017 Mar. PMID: 28405359
  • Interventions to reduce suicides at suicide hotspots: a systematic review.
    Cox GR, Owens C, Robinson J, Nicholas A, Lockley A, Williamson M, Cheung YT, Pirkis J.
    BMC Public Health. 2013 Mar 9;13:214. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458- 13-214. Review.

Looking forward to sharing with you
the next scientific news and reading suggestions!


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com

Scientific News & Reading Suggestions #11 – International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women

Suicide and intimate partner violence

What do we know about it?

  • Violence against women is a major public health problem and a violation of women’s human rights.
  • The greatest part are intimate partner violence.  
  • This problem may affect women’s physical and mental health.
  • In many cases violence can have fatal outcomes like homicide or suicide.

In the document “Understanding and addressing violence against women” WHO affirms that Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is one of the most common forms of violence against women and includes physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and controlling behaviours by an intimate partner.

Evidence suggests that women who are victims of IPV may develop depression, anxiety and phobias. In the WHO multi-country study, among other results, thoughts of suicide and attempted suicide were significantly higher among women who had experienced IPV.
Moreover IPV may be associated to cases of murder-suicide.

People who work in the field of mental health and suicide prevention
should not forget that signs of IPV may be a suicide warning signs.

When we meet patients who have been abused we may pay more attention to the violence instead of how helpless and hopeless violence makes them feel, and how this may leed to suicide attempt.

Strategies

  • We should dedicate more resources to improve prevention of and response to violence. We could promote gender equality and support women who need or ask for help also raising awareness in the population talking about it. Specialists of mental health can play an important role in prevention, to address fully the consequences of violence and the needs of survivors.
  • In the page “Violence against women”  WHO suggests different strategies that may be used as primary prevention (eg: school-based programmes to prevent violence within dating relationships). 

You can find more to read on WHO website, at these links:

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs239/en/
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77432/1/WHO_RHR_12.36_eng.pdf


If you organize an initiative for the
International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
contact us and we can share it on our website!


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com

Scientific News and Reading Suggestions #10 from JAMA-Psychiatry

Suicide Rates After Discharge From Psychiatric Facilities A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Chung DT, Ryan CJ, Hadzi-Pavlovic D, Singh SP, Stanton C, Large MM

Facts:

  • Most suicides occur in individuals with mental illness.
  • People with mental illness who have been discharged from psychiatric wards seem to have a greater risk for suicide than others (mostly in the first 3 months after discharge).

The article is a synthesis of the existing literature about rates of post-discharge suicide  and is a useful resource for mental health specialists to deepen their understanding of risk factors for the critical, post-discharge period. Nonetheless, the risk of suicide remains high for many years, and a careful approach to patients admitted because of suicidal ideas or behaviors is warranted.

You can find it on JAMA Psychiatry: click HERE


Editorial: Suicide and Attempted Suicide in the United States During the 21st Century.

Caine ED

Letter: Suicide Rates and the Declining Psychiatric Hospital Bed Capacity in the United States.

Robert D. Gibbons, PhDKwan Hur, PhD; J. John Mann, MD

The editorial  deals with suicides and attempted suicides rates which have continued to increase in the United States since the early 2000s. Suicide rates are particularly high among people between 21 and 34 years, with specific characteristics including social problems, psychiatry comorbidities, personality disorders, and substance-related conditions.  

The article stresses the important role of public health approaches to suicide prevention and early identification of people at risk.

A Letter was recently published in Jama Psychiatry dealing with the increase in the national suicide rates and discussing about its possible relation with the number of psychiatric hospital beds, that has decreased in the same period.

You can find the Editorial on JAMA Psychiatry: click HERE

You can find the Letter on JAMA Psychiatry: click HERE

Image from Pixabay


Looking forward to sharing with you
the next scientific news and reading suggestions!


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com

Scientific News and Reading Suggestions #9

The new reading suggestions are recent publications on BMJ about media and suicide prevention. The first letter talks about the recent TV series “13 Reasons Why” and discusses the possible impact of media on risk behaviours, while the second one focuses on the “edutainment” role of media.
As you know, the WHO published Guidelines for media professionals, who play an important role in suicide prevention, you can find it in our page “Guidelines”.


Looking forward to sharing with you
the next scientific news and reading suggestions!


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com

 

Scientific News and Reading Suggestions #8

Professor Danuta Wasserman shared:

“The European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on suicide treatment and prevention”
D. Wasserman, Z. Rihmer, D. Rujescu, M. Sarchiapone, M. Sokolowski, D. Titelman, G. Zalsman, Z. Zemishlany, V. Carli

It has been recognized as one of the most cited research articles in the European Psychiatry Journal.

You can find it in the European Psychiatry website, it is available for download until 5th December.


Looking forward to sharing with you
the next scientific news and reading suggestions!


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com


Thanks to Professor Danuta Wasserman, MD, PhD

Scientific News and Reading Suggestions #7

Our member Judith Balazs shared with us some of her recent publications in the field of suicidology:

Self-injury and externalizing pathology: a systematic literature review
Meszaros G, Horváth LO, Balazs J. (2017) BMC Psychiatry. 2017 3;17(1):160.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A systematic review.
Balazs J, Kereszteny A. (2017) World J Psychiatry 22; 7(1): 44-59


Looking forward to sharing with you
the next scientific news and reading suggestions!


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com


Thanks to Judth Balazs, MD, PhD

Scientific News and Reading Suggestion #6

The new reading suggestion is a recent publication on World Psychiatry; the Authors are two members of our Section:

Antidepressants and suicide risk in depression
Courtet, P. and Lopez-Castroman, J. (2017), World Psychiatry, 16: 317–318. doi:10.1002/wps.20460

Our Co-Chair, and also author, says about it:

“The current issue of World Psychiatry presents a letter by two of our section members (Philippe Courtet and Jorge Lopez Castroman). The letter describes the ongoing controversy about emergent suicidal ideation or behavior after the introduction of an antidepressant treatment. Our colleagues make a quick overview of this issue from the Black Box warning to the most recent evidence. They also make several suggestions to improve our knowledge and practice with suicidal patients: 1)the need for RCTs that do not exclude patients because of suicidal risk, 2) an update of usual practices in the use of antidepressants, and 3) the need for research investment in the development of specific treatments targeting suicidality. Here is the link to the paper. Food for thought!”


Looking forward to sharing with you
the next scientific news and reading suggestions!


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com


Thanks to Jorge López Castroman, MD, PhD, co-chair of The EPA-SSSP Section of Suicidology and Suicide Prevention

Scientific News and Reading Suggestions #4

Professor Vsevolod Rozanov informed us about his book recently published by Elsevier:

“Stress and Epigenetics in Suicide”

“In this book an attempt is made to build a model of suicidal behavior which is based on the concept of stress-vulnerability with implication of modern understanding of the role of epigenetics as a mechanism of programming certain behavioral and emotional patterns, which may influence suicide or suicide attempt.

I am trying here to put together different types of interactions between genes and environments (mostly social, discussing psycho-social and perceived stress as main disturbing factor), starting from typical genes-to -environment interactions, behavioral genes-to- environment covariations, to mechanisms of early life stress programming based on epigenetics and social genomics reactions which evoke conserved patterns of reactivity.
As a result a bio-behavioral model of suicidal behavior is proposed, which takes into consideration possible transgenerational transmission of programmed stress-reactivity and some other features, which in turn may serve as a background for self-destruction.
This model seems to be relevant for understanding recent growth of suicidal behavior in youth and adolescents. In the frame of this thinking cultural conflict, values that are promoted by global economic model, hedonism, individualism, rude materialism and many other psychological and existential aspects of modernity are thought to be responsible for the high level of perceived stress in youth, making certain part of them particularly vulnerable.
The perspective of prevention is seen in such domains as stress-inoculation from one side and self-actualization, meaning in life and intrinsic values promotion in youth from the other side. These wider strategies are given more attention, with reflections on possible biological effects”.


For more details: https://www.elsevier.com/books/stress-and-epigenetics-in-suicide/rozanov/978-0-12-805199-3


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com


Thanks to Professor Vsevolod Rozanov, MD, PhD

Scientific News and Reading Suggestions #5

Recently it was the World Suicide Prevention Day,
please remember that you are all encouraged to inform us about what you did about it!

You can find more about WSPD activities in several countries HERE!

By the way here we are with a new reading suggestion!

This time it is from JAMA Psychiatry, which, as you know, with its current IF 15.3 is one of the most important journals in the field of psychiatry.

We suggest you for reading a couple of articles published in the May-June and July issues; they are about a multi-center study of suicide prevention after discharge from Emergecy Department (ED). This research has involved 8 Emergency Departments (EDs) in the United States. It is widely acknowledged that people who have attempted suicide often come to the attention of specialist care only after the gesture. Usually the first psychiatric consultation for suicide attempts occurs in the ED, and 40% of deaths by suicide (15% of self-harm) visited an ED the year before committing suicide; hence the need to implement ad hoc prevention strategies in this specific setting.

The studies we suggest for reading focus on patients with a recent suicide attempt or suicidal ideation, and compare the outcome of two treatment groups (conventional treatment and program of prevention of suicide and self-harm) at a 52 weeks follow-up.

You can find more to read on JAMA Psychiatry website, at these links: 


Looking forward to sharing with you
the next scientific news and reading suggestions!


To know more, contact EPA- SSSP e-mail address:
epasectionsuicidology@gmail.com

Up ↑